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Exploring the Central Bank of Nepal: Key Functions and Objectives

Central Bank of Nepal is the reserve bank of Nepal, also known as “Nepal Rastra Bank (NRB)”. It acts as Nepal’s primary monetary authority and financial sector regulator, developing and carrying out monetary policy, issuing and managing the Nepalese Rupee (NPR), and supervising the activities of the nation’s banks and financial institutions. In this article, we will discuss the role and significance of the Nepal Rastra Bank,  its functions, history, and impact on Nepal’s economy.

Kathmandu is home to the headquarters office of the Nepal Rastra Bank (NRB). Additionally, it has opened regional offices in several Nepalese provinces to supervise and administer banking operations there. This is a paraphrase of the original.

  • The NRB’s primary office is situated in Kathmandu.
  • In Province 1, the Central Bank operates from Biratnagar.
  • In Province 2, its office is based in Janakpur.
  • For Bagmati Province, the Central Bank’s presence is in Birgunj, which also serves as the provincial office.
  • In Gandaki Province, the NRB has an office located in Pokhara.
  • Province 5 is served by two provincial offices, Nepalgunj and Siddharthanagar (Rupandehi).
  • Surkhet office serves as the provincial office for Karnali Province.
  • Dhangadhi office serves Sudur Paschim Province.

A Brief History on Nepal Rastra Bank

The Nepal Rastra Bank became hooked on April 26, 1956, under the Nepal Rastra Bank Act, 1955, and represents a sizable turning factor in Nepal’s economic improvement. It started as a step in modernizing the state’s monetary sector and has significantly impacted the direction of Nepal’s financial policies and the supervision of its banking and economic institutions.

Objectives of Nepal Rastra Bank 

The Nepal Rastra Bank (NRB) has several key objectives, as outlined in its governing legislation, the Nepal Rastra Bank Act, 2002. These objectives aim to promote Nepal’s economy’s stability, growth, and development. Here are the main goals of the Nepal Rastra Bank:

  • Price Stability: NRB’s objectives are to manipulate inflation and stabilize expenses to shield the shopping power of the Nepalese Rupee (NPR). 
  • Monetary Management: It manages the cash supply through policies like hobby rate adjustments and open marketplace operations
  • Exchange Rate Stability: NRB continues a stable exchange fee through dealing with forex reserves. 
  • Financial Sector Regulation regulates and supervises banks and economic institutions to ensure a valid economic system. 
  • Financial Sector Development: NRB promotes cutting-edge banking practices, innovation, and competition in Nepal’s financial region. 
  • Financial Inclusion: It encourages financial institutions to attain underserved regions, decreasing earnings disparities. 
  • Foreign Exchange Management: NRB guarantees suitable enough forex reserves to fulfill international price obligations. 
  • Economic Development: It helps financial increase through sound economic policies and funding-pleasant environments. 
  • Research and Data Collection: NRB conducts financial research and collects statistics for informed policy choices. 
  • Payment System Development: It complements electronic payment techniques and infrastructure for green transactions.

The functions of Nepal Rastra Bank

  • create banknotes and coins 
  • create necessary monetary regulations enforce or reason to be applied 
  • create vital foreign exchange policies and put them in force or reason to implement them. 
  • establish the gadget of forex price. 
  • manage and perform foreign exchange reserves. 
  • supply commercial banks and financial establishments licenses permitting them to behavior banking and monetary operations and to manipulate, oversee, look at, and screen such activities, 
  • serve as the government of Nepal’s banker, counselor, and financial representative, Serving as the lender of the ultimate in and serving as the banker for industrial banks and financial institutions, 
  • create and increase the price, clearing, and agreement device and to govern these operations, Conduct open marketplace transactions the use of the gear required for liquidity management, 
  • carry out or motive to finish any further crucial responsibilities that the Bank needs to complete to fulfill its obligations underneath the NRB Act of 2002.
  •  maintain the stability of the banking and monetary area.

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Impact on Nepal’s Economy

Overestimating the impact of the Nepal Rastra Bank on the national economy takes a lot of work. The legal system in Nepal has an immediate influence on inflation, interest rates, and the overall stability of the country’s economic system. Managing the currency and foreign exchange reserves guards the monarchy from financial shocks and external weaknesses.

Furthermore, by focusing on economic inclusion, the NRB has helped extend banking services to underserved and rural communities, increasing their financial independence and closing wage inequities.

Board of directors

The Nepal Rastra Bank Board of Directors comprises seven people under the Nepal Rastra Bank Act 2002. The chairman of the board is the Bank’s Governor. The five-year terms of the Governor, Deputy Governors, and other Directors are determined by the Government of Nepal, specifically the Council of Ministers. If it is considered essential, the government may nominate the departing Governor for another term.


S.noNamePositionMember Since
01Mr. Maha Prasad AdhikariChairmanApril 6, 2020
02Mr. Krishna Hari PushkarMember (Secretary, Ministry of Finance)August 17, 2022
03Mr. Bam Bahadur MishraMember (Deputy Governor)March 9, 2021
04Dr. Neelam Dhungana TimsinaMember (Deputy Governor)March 9, 2021
05Dr. Suvod Kumar KarnMemberApril 24, 2018
06Mr. Chinta Mani SiwakotiMemberMay 20, 2022
07Dr. Shankar Prasad AcharyaMemberMay 20, 2022


What is the central bank now?

It is the country's financial services regulator for most categories of financial firms

What are the main aims of a national central bank?

Monetary Stability, Financial System Regulation, and Currency Issuance are the three main aims of a national central bank.

Who is the head of the Central Bank of Nepal?

Maha Prasad Adhikari is the head of the Central Bank of Nepal and is also the governor of the Central Bank of Nepal.

Who is the CEO of Nepal Rastra Bank?

Maha Prasad Adhikari currently serves as the Chairman of the Board of Directors and holds the position of the 17th Governor at Nepal Rastra Bank (NRB), which is the central banking authority of Nepal.

What is another name for a central bank?

Another name for a central bank is a reserve bank or national bank.

Is the central bank a good bank?


The central bank of Nepal, Nepal Rastra Bank, acts as a guardian of all other commercial and cooperative banks of the country. Its primary work revolves around making the policy for all the other banks operating inside the country to act as a currency issuance body. It is a significant government body to safeguard the nation’s financial interests.